22 nov. 2017

Spain: UFOs Over the Pyrenees - The Pusilibro Event (1977)

Source: PLANETA UFO (Argentina) and El Heraldo (Spain)
Date: 11.22.2017

Spain: UFOs Over the Pyrenees - The Pusilibro Event (1977)

Sightings from Sierra Caballera in Huesca drew the attention of thousands interested in extraterrestrial phenomena.

The story of UFOs in the Pyrenees is inextricably linked to the sightings at Pusilibro, a peak in the Sierra Caballera (Huesca) which exerted a hypnotic attraction some 40 years ago over thousands of people interested in a phenomenon which at the time commanded newspaper pages and headlines.

Forty years ago, in November 1977, the 'Nueva España' newspaper (today known as 'Diario del Alto Aragón') published a series of strange nocturnal photographs showing two moving lights, increasing an obsession that had come about a few months earlier in the midst of Summer.

The subject of odd lights on the summit of Mount Pusilibro (1,597 meters), known to a handful of people, soon turned into an international phenomenon that led to continuous nocturnal pilgrimages to the area and prompted the interest of the international media.

Among those who best knew the entire process is journalist Luis García Nuñez, now retired, who was responsible for providing the Huesca newspaper with not only the photographs, but the narrative of what became known as the "Pusilibro UFO".

In a statement to the EFE news agency, the veteran journalist states that a call to the paper's newsroom in September 1977 prompted his editor to entrust him with looking into the alleged sightings, to see if there was any truth to them.

The phone call alerted them to the presence of a large red vehicle over the ridge that leads to the summit of Pusilibro.

Night after night - he recalls - he drove to the vicinity of Pusilibro to await the unexpected, standing next to a few dozen others who faithfully believed that an encounter was going to happen.

From that moment on, García Nuñez had to screen dozens of phone calls informing him of unlikely sightings in various corners of Huesca's geography. Some of these were unquestionably pranks.

Publication of the photos on November 10, 1977 not only changed everything: it awakened the interest and curiosity of the media, ufologists, or simply curiosity-seekers interested in the phenomenon.

The infamous images of the Pusilibro UFO were taken by an amateur photographer from the tenth floor of his building. The three-picture sequence shows a smaller white light approaching a larger red one, finally merging into a whitish form. The photographer thought he could see a large kidney-bean shaped craft in one of the lights, says García Núñez, recalling those times.

It was a landslide of information, says the journalist, causing hundreds of people to seek the magic of the unknown at Mount Pusilibro. A phenomenon from which sharp-eyed businessmen were able to profit by selling drinks, but which also drew the attention of renowned journalist, writer and researcher Juan José Benítez, with whom García Núñez has been in contact since then. The long nights were filled with sandwiches, hot drinks, cold weather, blankets, tripod-mounted cameras and an enthusiasm and excitement that are hard to understand today.

Benitez himself, among those who spent the most time near Pusilibro, was able to secure the negatives to the photos, sending them to a laboratory to detect any possible fraud or manipulation.

According to the journalist, the writer told him some time later that the images he had published were genuine and not manipulated in any way.

Nonetheless, the phenomenon gave rise to jokes and mockery. He remembers receiving a typewritten document submitted by alleged aliens from the planet UMMO, warning about humanity's inability to understand the existence of extraterrestrial life.

"It is for this reason," reads the report that García Núñez still keeps, “that contacting you is a difficult and delicate matter. We must sensitize you little by little with communications such as this and manifestations by some of our craft, which occur along a systematically pre-established plan."

These reactions notwithstanding, the phenomenon also summoned the interest of well-known ufologists like Benitez himself, who either confirmed or questioned the images and the alleged sightings themselves.

Sometime later, Benitez would write: "The case of the 'Pusilibro UFO' is genuine, and we are faced with an exceptional document: a UFO mothership or carrier in Spanish skies. Let us bear in mind that this vessel was also seen by many other witnesses throughout the months of September, October and November 1977."

The truth of the matter, recalls García Núñez, is that there hasn't been a sighting in the Pyrenees that stirred up such a commotion since that one.

[Translation © 2017 S. Corrales, IHU with thanks to Guillermo Giménez]

via Inexplicata-The Journal of Hispanic Ufology http://ift.tt/GCRz8J

Argentina: The Uncertain Fate of the Cachi "Ufoport"

Source: Planeta UFO and El Tribuno (Argentina)
Date: 11.22.2017

Argentina: The Uncertain Fate of the Cachi "Ufoport"

After learning that Werner Jaisly - the Swiss national who built the Chachi "ufoport" which shall hereinafter be under the jurisdiction of municipal authorities - had separated himself from the project, several readers contacted El Tribuno to obtain further information on the story.

The concern has to do with whether another infrastructure or some lookout spot will exist at the site to enable witnessing UFO sightings, which are quite frequent in the area.

The ufoport is an area created by Jaisly using white rocks, geometrically arrayed over a plain that allows for access to the mountain ranges north of Cachi, formations that are the foothills of the famous mountain that bears the same name as the community.

It was there - according to Werner's stories - that he had been telepathically contacted by alien beings one night in November 2008. They had ordered him to design a series of drawings making use of the local stone.

It was from this command that Jaisli began designing what became known at the time as a ufoport, a place where contact with beings for other planets could be made. The story excited seekers and followers of the UFO community and the site became another tourist landmark, which the municipality could exploit to its advantage. Not much is known about the eccentric Werner, only that people have stopped seeing him on the city's streets. Not much is known about his plans once he has left Cachi. Some believe he will go back to his country of origin.

"People stopped seeing him around town and the strangest theories were concocted. They even said he'd been taken away by flying saucers. That's not the case. He left because he was tired," says David Zuleta.

The complex Werner dubbed "La Esperanza" is some 4 kilometers distant from the community. It was very common to see this 70-year-old Swiss walking down the narrow streets, clad in the manner of a druid - those pre-Christian wisemen who specialized in the occult and philosophy. Werner had a pointed white beard, a black jacket with toggles made of deer horn, a mid-thigh wide skirt, a toque, and completed his outlandish outfit with a pair of cowboy boots. The place where he erected his works is called Fuerte Alto and occupies an area of approximately four city blocks. He outlined a star with thirty-six points, measuring 48 meters in diameter, containing a smaller star of the same color but with only 12 points. The entire construction is visible from above. He began working on it in 2008 and had it ready by 2012.

"I was at Fuerte Alto with my neighbor Luis. It was midnight on November 24, 2008. We could hear a celebration going own below in the Complejo Deportivo (sports complex). Suddenly there was silence. The power went out and we were in total darkness. 'It's a UFO night,' I said to Luis. No sooner had I finished saying those words when two luminous objects flew 200 meters over the Chalchaqui River. They were solid, circular and seemingly made of burnished metal. I don't know why, but I mentally asked them to come closer, and they did! They came down some 100 meters over our heads and bathed us in a beam of light that made us glow. What's odd is that it didn't harm our eyesight. Something bubbled in my brain. It was a command. I was being telepathically asked to build the spaceport," explained Werner.

[Translation (c) 2017 S. Corrales, IHU with thanks to Gullermo Giménez, Planeta UFO]

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21 nov. 2017

La Niña is here, but how will it affect our Winter?

La Niña conditions are currently forming in the Pacific Ocean, however forecasters expect that if these conditions persist through the winter, this will only be a mild episode, compared to La Niña that have occurred in the past.

La Niña, Spanish for "little girl", occurs when sea surface temperatures drop to below normal along a band following the equator in the Eastern Pacific, the counterpart to the phenomenon of above-average sea surface temperatures known as El Niño. These two phenomena are part of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), one of the strongest drivers of climate variation in North America and around the world.

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¿Cómo se regenera de forma natural la costa tras un vertido?

Investigadores de las universidades de Huelva y Oviedo han analizado el comportamiento natural del ecosistema tras un derrame de fuel y su capacidad para eliminar cualquier foco contaminante. Los resultados ayudarán a establecer protocolos de actuación ante derrames de combustible en el litoral.
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El alargadísimo ‘Oumuamua, el primer asteroide interestelar

Las primeras observaciones de un asteroide llegado a nuestro sistema solar procedente del espacio interestelar han sorprendido a los astrónomos. El objeto, bautizado con el nombre hawaiano de ‘Oumuamua, no se parece a nada visto antes: parece ser metálico o rocoso, con un color rojo oscuro y, sobre todo, muy alargado. Su longitud es de al menos 400 metros y, después de girar cerca del Sol, se aleja a la vertiginosa velocidad de 95.000 km/h.
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Stories from a Life 18 : New Book, the Afterlife Revolution

Whitley Strieber announces what promises to be a truly amazing book called the Afterlife Revolution. He and Anne have written it together, and here he talks about what it is like to be back in contact with her, and tells about the meaning of the book, which is due to be published on December 8.

As always, he delivers his message with great passion and integrity, explaining why the book had to be published so quickly, and exactly what he and Anne hope to accomplish with it.

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8,000 Year-Old Petroglyph might be the World's Oldest Image of Hunting Dogs, complete with Leashes

Researchers have found what may be the earliest depiction of dogs hunting alongside a human companion in Saudi Arabia, in a sandstone carving believed to be more than 8,000 years old. The human is armed with a bow and arrow, accompanied by thirteen dogs, including two that appear to be tethered to their biped counterpart by what the researchers believe are leashes -- possibly the oldest record of the use of such a restraining device by humans.

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20 nov. 2017

MultiDark-Galaxies: un universo virtual de acceso libre

Un equipo internacional de astrónomos liderado desde la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) y el Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía ha creado un modelo teórico que permite recrear, de manera amplia y detallada, la formación y evolución del universo. El trabajo proporciona un banco de pruebas sin precedentes para las nuevas teorías sobre el cosmos.
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18 nov. 2017

El coche de von Ardenne (1961): Seguro, panorámico y ¡raro de narices!

Antes de entrar en la miga del asunto, cómo no, convendrá recordar muy brevemente quién fue Manfred von Ardenne, el inventor del extraño bicho sobre ruedas que nos visita hoy (próximamente publicaré una reseña biográfica sobre su figura, pero vayan por adelantado estas letras para ir descubriendo al personaje). Manfred dejó este mundo en 1997, cuando había cumplido nueve décadas de vida. Científico genial donde los haya, hoy es apenas recordado porque, por decirlo suavemente, estuvo trabajando del lado de los malos de la película. Por una parte, parte de su trabajo se desarrolló bajo el régimen nazi, con todo lo que ello conlleva y, posteriormente, estuvo bajo la esfera de influencia de la Unión Soviética (trabajó en su programa nuclear). Todo un antihéroe, si se quiere ver así. Pero eso no le resta genialidad (además, siempre afirmó mantenerse alejando de la política y no se afilió a ningún partido, pero eso no quita que terminara salpicado. De haber trabajado en el programa nuclear norteamericano, y no soviético, la cosa sería muy diferente… ya se sabe cómo son estas cosas). Manfred von Ardenne, físico, inventor y empresario alemán, no estuvo quieto ni un solo día. No es raro que, así, lograra cerca de 600 patentes y que fuera pionero de la tecnología nuclear, uno de los padres de la televisión, de las telecomunicaciones, de nuevas tecnologías médicas, la microscopía electrónica, el estudio del plasma… Además de su actividad científica convencional, y en cierto modo de la misma forma en la que trabajaba otro genio como fue Buckminster Fuller, también dedicó mucho tiempo a soñar con el futuro. Por eso, he traído aquí hoy una de sus más “locas” invenciones, que se adelantó a su tiempo en lo que se refiere a la seguridad en la circulación.

El automóvil seguro de von Ardenne. Fuente: Radio Electronics 1961.

Allá por 1961 Manfred von Ardenne presentó su coche seguro para el futuro. Se trataba de un coche muy extraño y que llamó la atención de su época, pero poco más, porque nunca se construyó en serie y no pasó de algunos estudios técnicos. Pero era audaz, sin ninguna duda. Veamos, el automóvil de Manfred hubiera dispuesto de:

  • Estructura reforzada con polímeros y espumas, recordando lejanamente a los airbag (nuestro protagonista había patentado ya diversos tipos de elementos de seguridad para automoción, como un tipo de cinturón de seguridad mejorado).
  • Para mejorar la seguridad todavía más, llevaría un “retén” de polímero, como un gran bloque en su parte delantera. Eso obligaba a que los pasajeros estuvieran sentados mirando al contrario del sentido de la marcha. Sí, ibas sentado al revés. Y, para conducirlo, uno debía servirse de grandes pantallas panorámicas alimentadas por cámaras y sensores, todo ello auxiliado por radares contra colisiones.
  • El inventor quería así asegurar la seguridad completa en caso de impacto frontal. La parte delantera del coche podría aguantar sin problemas los impactos gracias al gran bloque de polímero.
  • Si las cámaras, que llevarían incluso filtros infrarrojos para conducción bajo condiciones de niebla, llegaban a fallar, el coche disponía de un periscopio de emergencia para detener el vehículo.
  • Tal y como el propio Manfred explicaba en 1961 en las páginas de la revista Radio-Electronics magazine, el lograr una solución como esa era cosa de ingenieros electrónicos, como él, que llevaba décadas trabajando en el desarrollo de la televisión. ¿Qué mejor que blindar el frontal de los coches y circular disfrutando de una pantalla panorámica?

Ciertamente, era un diseño extravagante que no tenía recorrido, pero no por ello deja de llamar la atención, precisamente ahora cuando los vehículos nuevos llegan cargados de elementos de seguridad con todo tipo de sensores, cámaras y medios contra colisión, que tanto hubieran encantado al inventor alemán.

El coche de von Ardenne (1961): Seguro, panorámico y ¡raro de narices! apareció originalmente en Tecnología Obsoleta, 18 noviembre 2017.

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17 nov. 2017

Former Facebook Prez on the Dangers of Social Media: 'God only knows what it's doing to our children's brains'

The profound impact of the technology of social networking on our culture, especially social media juggernaut Facebook, is a phenomenon that is unique in human history, allowing friends, loved ones, and even complete strangers to connect from disparate corners of the interweb. Conversely, it has also been used to spread disinformation, such as in the case of Russian hackers meddling in the 2016 US presidential election, and for many it has also become the object of addictive behavior.

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The Punta Cuevas UFO - A "Repeater"?

Luis Burgos from ICOU/FAO shares some intriguing photographs with us. Was the Punta Cuevas UFO seen on two earlier occasions (Las Grutas, January '75) and Caleta Olivia (1974)? That would place it among the elite category of "repeaters" in the history of UFO study, which includes the McMinnville UFO, which had also been reported during a French saucer wave.

Readers interested in the fascinating subject of repeaters are invited to check out Timothy Green Beckley's The UFO Repeaters - Seeing is Believing over at Amazon.com.
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The Ozone Hole is (Finally) Shrinking

The infamous hole in Earth's ozone layer has shrunk down to 7.6 million square miles wide (12,200,000 square kilometers), the smallest the gap has been since 1988. This healing of Earth's main shield against ultraviolet radiation is due largely to efforts initiated in the mid-1980s, when the use of ozone-harming CFCs was phased out. Not only is this positive news in regards to our atmosphere's ability to filter out harmful UV radiation, it also stands as an example of how humanity can make a positive, large-scale impact when efforts to reduce ecological harm are required, such as in the case of our need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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16 nov. 2017

The Mystery of the White Spirit Animals

November 17, 2017
You've heard about the White Buffalo and maybe other white spirit animals. But what are they and what do they mean? Today, Zohara Hieronimous explains them to us. Learn about not only the White Buffalo but also the White Bear, the White Lion, the White Wolf and others. What does it mean for the future that so many animal species are now going extinct?

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El Sónar envía 33 canciones a un exoplaneta potencialmente habitable

El festival Sónar, que aúna música e innovación tecnológica a través de su propuesta Sónar+D, ha querido celebrar su 25 aniversario con una llamada a la inteligencia extraterrestre. En colaboración con el Instituto de Estudios Espaciales de Cataluña y la Asociación Científica Europea de Radares de Dispersión Incoherente ha decidido lanzar un mensaje –que incluye 33 piezas de música creadas por artistas afines al festival– a un exoplaneta que gira entorno a la Estrella de Luyten.
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Envían 33 canciones a un exoplaneta cercano potencialmente habitable

El festival Sónar, que aúna música e innovación tecnológica a través de su propuesta Sónar+D, ha querido celebrar su 25 aniversario con una llamada a la inteligencia extraterrestre. En colaboración con el Instituto de Estudios Espaciales de Cataluña y la Asociación Científica Europea de Radares de Dispersión Incoherente ha decidido lanzar un mensaje –que incluye 33 piezas de música creadas por artistas afines al festival– a un exoplaneta que gira entorno a la Estrella de Luyten.
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El mundo templado más cercano alrededor de una estrella tranquila

El cazador de planetas HARPS del Observatorio Europeo Austral (ESO) ha descubierto el planeta Ross 128 b, del tamaño de la Tierra, a tan solo 11 años luz del sistema solar. Se trata del segundo planeta templado más cercano tras Próxima b. También es el más próximo hallado que orbita alrededor de una estrella enana roja inactiva, lo que aumenta las probabilidades albergar vida.
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"We Are You And You Are Us."

Wednesday November 15, 2017
"Melanie" is one of those experiencers with clear, vivid memories of a range of high strangeness and spiritual experiences. And thanks to her unprompted honesty about what else was going on in her life as these experiences were unfolding, we may actually glean a clue as to the nature of abductions.
StreamGuys MP3 Stream URL: 

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15 nov. 2017

Researchers Save a Child's Life with Genetically-Modified, Lab-Grown Skin

Medical researchers have saved the life of a seven-year-old boy by growing genetically-modified replacement skin for him. The young German boy suffered from a deadly congenital condition called epidermolysis bullosa, a condition that cases the sufferer's skin to tear and blister, as if it had been burned. The procedure not only saved his life, but he's now able to participate in sports with his classmates.

By 2015 the patient had been admitted to the burns unit at Bochum Children's Hospital in Germany: at that point, two-thirds of his skin was either was either badly damaged or outright missing, and traditional treatments failed to yield results, including skin grafts from a donor.

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Argentina: As Seen On the X-Files

Source: luisburgosovni.blogspot.ar
Date: November 15, 2017

Argentina: As Seen on the X-Files

The Only Argentinean Photo Featured on The X-Files
By Luis Burgos (FAO-ICOU)

In 1971, Americo Lumelli, grandfather of our friend and colleague Luciano Mazzoni, opened the "El OVNI" bar in Venado Tuerto (Santa Fe), whose name made it an obligatory port of call for our entire team. It didn't take long to become famous in the national UFO circuit and even more so because Americo formed part of the CIC group (Centro de Investigaciones Cosmobiofisicas) in that community. The bar remained in business until his death in 1998. You can imagine all the subjects that were discussed there on the subject that has concerned us in 27 years of public research.

But far away and many years later, another bar with a similar name caught the attention of Argentinean researchers. In fact, the second episode of the first season of THE X-FILES featured a scene within a bar shows a UFO photo taken in Argentina - the ONLY one that appeared in the groundbreaking TV series: a shot of the Punta Cuevas saucer.

Punta Cuevas is a rocky formation with a thin strip of beach washed by the blue waters of Golfo Nuevo and located only a few kilometers from the downtown area of the lovely city of Puerto Madryn, the gateway to the Valdes Peninsula in Chubut Province. It is known as the "the landing site", as the vessel "Mimosa" arrived there in 1865 bearing 153 Welsh settlers who founded the regional communities. In fact, the Museo del Desembarco, located above the local caves, displays everything regarding this event and flies the white and blue flag, but with a red dragon in its middle - a device that flew over those shores at the time.

In late 1975, a resident of Trelew who chose to remain anonymous submitted a photo - allegedly taken in the Punta Cuevas sector - to Cuarta Dimension magazine. According to the account furnished by R.E.S. (the person's initials), he witnessed the maneuvers of a metallic object for over a minute at 15:20 hours on 18 February 1975. The object reflected the sun's light and headed eastward to the sea without making a noise. The camera employed was a Practika Pentacon using Kodak slide color film, being the second image in a series of six. At the time, the photo was analyzed by Lic. Guillermo Roncoroni, a member of Fabio Zerpa's team, and classified as QUESTIONABLE due to the lack of information provided.

In the second chapter of the first season of THE X-FILES ("Deep Throat"), the plot takes place in a bar located near the enigmatic Ellens AFB in Idaho. Mulder and Scully try to find the location from which locals are reporting triangular UFOs. What better place to do so than "The Flying Saucer" bar, owned by a woman who had not only had experiences of her own, but also fed the expectations of anyone interested in saucer affairs. Behind the bar, and only for a few seconds, we catch a glimpse of several UFO photographs...and the PUNTA CUEVAS one is among them. Strange but true. Evidently, some producer secured material from different parts of the world and came across the image from Chubut.

Taking advantage of our extensive Patagonian sojourn during the 10th Federal ICOU Event in El Bolsón, held on October 27-28, 2017, we set out with the FAO delegation that accompanied us to revisit classic case locations as we traveled, as well as to secure testimony from the Patagonian witnesses themselves. All of this, and our typical nocturnal skywatches as well. All expectations were met, to our great fortune, and such was the case with Punta Cuevas, where we manage to stand - 42 years after the original incident - at the place where the only Argentinean photo shown on the X-FILES was taken.

The local geography has clearly changed over time, but the typical vegetation of the dunes remains. Standing in the same are, we were able to reconstruct how the incident must have taken place on that summer afternoon. The witness was at the beach, surely taking photos of the caves. When the UFO appeared, practically over his/her head, coming in from the West and heading out to sea, he or she began pressing the shutter, resulting in only the dune and the blue sky appearing, without any other point of reference. While the photo does not say much in of itself, the fact that it appeared on the TV series will keep it alive forever, at least as a remarkable ufological curiosity from Argentina. It would have truly been extraordinary, however, if Américo had featured the Punta Cuevas photo behind his bar in Venado Tuerto!

[Translation (c) 2017, S. Corrales, Institute of Hispanic Ufology]
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Think AI Weapons are No Biggie? This Video will Chill You Crosseyed!

Elon Musk, Stephen Hawking and others have been warning about the dangers of weaponizing artificial intelligence. Meanwhile, the Pentagon and the Russian and Chinese militaries are already in an AI weapons arms race. The Pentagon has promised that it won't release such weapons from human control, but whether or not they will learn to release themselves--or be programmed to under various circumstances--remains an unknown. Research projects in all three countries are deeply classified, but if one deploys autonomous intelligent weapons, then the others must do the same. The simple reason is that human control would then be too slow.

This video, created by BanAutonomousWeapons.org, reveals the danger of these devices.

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14 nov. 2017

Una ‘serpiente cósmica’ revela la estructura de las galaxias lejanas

Los viveros de estrellas parecen ser más grandes y masivos en las galaxias distantes que en las cercanas, pero esas diferencias no son tantas cuando una potente lente gravitacional aumenta los detalles. Así lo han comprobado investigadores europeos al estudiar una galaxia situada a 6.000 millones de años luz, cuya imagen aparece estirada en forma de serpiente por el efecto de una de estas gigantescas lentes.
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El Salvador: UFO Causes Social Media Uproar

Source: Planeta UFO and LaNetanoticias.com
Date: November 13, 2017
Article by Iván Gómez

El Salvador: UFO Causes Social Media Uproar

An alleged unidentified flying object (UFO) was seen this weekend on the main street of San Salvador, capital city of El Salvador. The event has been the subject of much discussion among the UFO community and cybernauts alike.

It is also said that the photos were taken just as a storm was starting to form, making it possible to see the UFO at a distance - an event that has given rise to hundreds of questions.

Edgar Mazariego, an expert on the subject, said the UFO was in the sky near the Salvador del Mundo circle, a highly visible landmark in the Central American nation's capital.

Availing himself of information from the Noticias Ya website, the man said that the unidentified flying object in motion caused all citizens to turn their attention toward it, thinking at first that it could have been a comet. But [the object's] movement was far too swift to compare it with such a heavenly body, and another shining light was seen moments after. This led people to think about a possible invasion.

Meanwhile, civil aviation authorities did not put forth any statements in this regard, either to reject or accept the event. This has in turn created uncertainty among the population, which remains shocked by what has been seen over the skies of El Salvador.

Hundreds of comments were issued on social media - some in favor, supporting the theory that UFOs are increasingly closer to the human race, and others against, stating the video had been created to spread panic in the world.

PHOTO can be seen at: http://ift.tt/2zDFZsF
VIDEO can be seen at: blob:http://ift.tt/2hsvxtL

[Translation (c) 2017 S. Corrales, IHU with thanks to Guillermo Giménez, Planeta UFO]

via Inexplicata-The Journal of Hispanic Ufology http://ift.tt/GCRz8J

Honduras: UFO Recorded Over San Pedro Sula

Source: Planeta UFO and Publimetro.com and La Netanoticias.com
Date: November 12, 2017
Article by Ivan Gomez

Honduras: UFO Recorded over San Pedro Sula

**A UFO flew over a major street in the San Pedro Sula region of Honduras. The event has been captured on video**

Some time ago, a citizen was driving to work through downtown San Pedro Sula, Honduras. He managed to record a UFO on his cellphone, and the recording has caused a stir on the Internet.

The man shared his discovery on social media as well as with Publimetro.com, and the news spread like wildfire. The video in question shows the unidentified flying object in detail. The recording also shows that the UFO was over a well-known store of San Pedro Sula's Tercera Avenida. It even seemed to disappear and reappear in the amateur video, as though playing with the person recording it.

The percipient even took advantage of the heavy traffic that is a trademark of the area in order to record the video, showing the unidentified flying object suspended over the skies of San Pedro Sula.

When the traffic light changed between avenues, the percipient kept driving and zoomed in on the paranormal phenomenon. What is curious is that the UFO appears to vanish completely from the recording on two separate occasions. The citizen also stated that other local residents were not aware of what was happening, or else chose to ignore it.

Hundreds of comments have been made on social media, saying it could be a hoax. Others, to the contrary, aired the popular theory about an alien invasion.

PHOTOS can be seen at: http://ift.tt/2AIABCz
VIDEO can be seen at: http://ift.tt/2yAvC5w

Photos and Video (c) TVAzteca

[Translation © 2017 S. Corrales, IHU with thanks to Guillermo Giménez, Planeta UFO, and TVAzteca]

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¿Por qué el agua caliente puede congelarse antes que la fría?

Investigadores de las universidades Carlos III de Madrid, la Universidad de Extremadura y la Universidad de Sevilla han definido un marco teórico que podría explicar el llamado efecto Mpemba, un fenómeno físico contraintuitivo que se manifiesta cuando el agua caliente se congela antes que el agua fría. Uno de los factores implicados parece ser la velocidad a la que están las partículas antes del enfriamiento.
via Matemáticas, Física y Química http://ift.tt/18ZbcUb

13 nov. 2017

The Star that Went Nova -- Six Times!

A star that goes nova is only supposed to explode once... right?

That long-held assumption was upended when astronomers spotted a Type II-P supernova in progress in a star 509 million light-years away on September 8, 2014. The exploding star in question, iPTF14hls, was predicted to fade within 100 days, but its luminosity not only persisted for the next 600 days, it also flared to an even greater brightness at least five more times, implying that this single star had experienced a supernova at least six times.

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A Case for Underwater Aliens?

A Case for Underwater Aliens?
By Scott Corrales (c) 2017

We came from the sea. Perhaps that’s why we stare at so longingly during those long sunset walks on the beach, or those invigorating morning runs. Seeing it in the dark of night fills us with a mixture of equal parts awe and fear, beholding primeval chaos. Even though some scientists are now discussing the possibility of life having originated on land, in pits of volcanic mud, humanity’s bond to the ocean is too deep to be severed by academic theories – deep inside, we know it to be the home we long to return to.

Home it may have been once, but no more. It is the abode of massive creatures of fact and fiction: beyond the sharks and whales of sea stories and documentaries, we harbor the belief in even more fearsome creatures below the surface: the behemoths that in recent years have inspired artists to create nightmarish denizens of the depths that are too terrible to behold. Some of these creations of the human mind appear capable of swallowing not only a hapless diver or even a ship, but an entire island. The depths of the mind are as unfathomable as the abyssal deep.

Beyond these denizens of the world ocean, real or imagined, there are legends in the human past of sentient creatures living under the waves. The Sumerian culture-bearer Oannes came from beneath the water to instruct savage mankind. The Mexican codices tell us of four ages of creation prior to our own, the fourth one having been destroyed by a deluge that lasted not forty days, but fifty-two years, in which only one man and woman survived, the rest having been “turned into fishes.” The fate of this piscified humanity receives no further mention in any chronicle, and Antonio de León y Gama, who compiled them, appears not to have pursued the matter.
Other cultures have also peopled the sea with sentient beings whose lives sometimes intersect our own – Scotland gives us the Blue Men, notorious for swimming along surface vessels and luring sailors into the water. The African mermen known as the Jengu had an equally physical and spiritual nature, playing a significant role in the traditions of a number of tribes. Slavic tradition gives us the Vodianoi, who would put drowned human to work as slaves in their underwater palaces. The list goes on.

As space probes show us spectacular liquid environments to be found in distant moons like Titan and Enceladus, considerations of what sort of intelligent life may have involved under those unimaginable conditions have begun to filter through the Internet. Feverish visions of species evolving under the ice, nourished by the heat from the moon’s subsurface and shielded from cosmic radiation by layers of planetary icecap are dancing across keyboards far and wide.

But setting aside the possibility of intelligent alien life in the outer solar system, we are still left with the possibility that our species may have underwater cousins. Some of those who grew up in the late ‘70s and early ‘80s remember Advanced Dungeons & Dragons and the fearsome aquatic race known as the Sahuagin, sworn enemies of aquatic elves and worshippers of the dreaded shark-god. Little could we have imagined that such imaginary entities could have had counterparts in real life.

A Tropical Nightmare

In his recent book Solo Para Tus Ojos (For Your Eyes Only), published by Spain’s Editorial Planeta in 2016 veteran journalist and UFO researcher Juan José Benítez mentioned a 1969 case from the Caribbean island of Antigua that had been brought to his attention by a U.S. military man stationed there.

According to the soldier’s testimony, he had taken some friends to Mamora Bay, a body of water located in the southwestern shores of the island, for some nocturnal fishing. The group found a choice location among the rocks and arranged their fishing poles. As the sun went down, the soldiers became aware of a group of locals on the beach some distance away, who had lit a bonfire on the sand and stood around it forming a circle. The Americans soon realized that what they took at first to be a friendly gathering was in fact a religious ceremony: the islanders sacrificed a chicken and poured its blood into a wooden bowl, held in the hands of the celebrant, who moved away from the circle to kneel on the sand, facing the water.

“We suddenly saw someone come out of the water,” the soldier told Benítez, recalling the moment. “We were speechless. It wasn’t a skin diver. It was a person, but a lot taller. Standing over six feet tall, he walked slowly and surely toward the men in the circle.”

According to the description given, the figure was lean but well-built, with a row of large, bony plates down its spinal column. It had a tapered head and webbed feet. The entity covered the distance between the water and the group of worshippers in absolute silence. The celebrant rose to his feet and walked to the creature with the bowl of blood. It took it, raised it to its mouth, and drank the vital fluid. After returning the wooden bowl to the human, the entity turned around and retraced its steps back into the water. The locals stood in reverent silence until it vanished under the waves.

“We left our fishing gear behind and ran away,” the soldier told Benítez. “We went back the next day but there was no one there. There was no evidence of the previous evening’s events beyond the remnants of the bonfire.”

No effort was made to make inquiries from the locals (“We didn’t want to get involved”). The Spanish author notes – ominously – that it was clearly not the first time that such a ritual had been performed.

As a side note, we can add that the U.S. maintained a military presence on Antigua since the 1940s, when anti-submarine warfare was conducted against Nazi forces from the Naval air stations on the island. It is possible that Benítez's witnesses were attached to the Antigua Air Station, which closed down in 2015 after seventy years of service.

We can only pause to reflect upon such a narrative. Was the strange presence a physical creature, or a manifestation of the Yoruba deity Olokun, a sea deity more than likely still venerated by descendants of West African slaves? Or could it have been an actual representative of a colony of amphibian humanoids, long sundered from our own kind?

In the late 1970s, two Japanese construction workers had a similar experience. While fishing off the breakwater in the city of Yokosuka, the two friends were terrified at the sight of a figure that emerged straight out of the water. They described it as being neither fish nor human, standing a whopping three meters tall (9.5 ft) and covered in scaly skin. The nightmarish creature trained its yellow eyes upon the fishermen. Was it expecting a ceremonial offering of blood? We’ll never know.

Our Neighbors Underwater

Some two thousand years ago, the Roman historian Pausanias had the opportunity to witness an unusual sight: the carcass of what was described as "a Triton" --one of the sea-god Neptune's helpers--allegedly slain after having come ashore to kill the cattle of the inhabitants of the Greek city of Tanagra. Pausanias reported the creature had "hard, dense scales and stank." Some three hundred-odd years ago, Spain was abuzz with the story of some fishermen from Cádiz who had managed to capture a scaly man shaped like a fish, luring him to their nets with bits of bread. This story soon became enmeshed with the legend of the “Man-Fish of Liérganes”, the account of a man who had gone swimming one day and never seen again, until captured at sea and taken before agents of the Inquisition.

In more recent times, Charles Berlitz (the linguist, also of Bermuda Triangle fame) included a fascinating story in his book Without a Trace about the experience of a commercial diver – Bruce Mornier – who was working in the waters of the island of Bimini in the Bahamas – a possible location of fabled Atlantis, according to Berlitz. The diver and his crew some forty feet above the sandy bottom of the ocean at that location, engaged in salvage work. “A round turtle or big fish,” says the diver, “became visible and I went lower to get a good look. It turned and looked at me at a 20-degree angle.”

To his astonishment, it turned out not to be a turtle, but a long-necked creature with the general appearance of a monkey. “It looked like the face of a monkey with specially adapted eyes for underwater vision. When it got a good look at me, it took off using some form of propulsion that came from underneath.” It darted into an underwater cave and the diver dared not follow. For some reason, Mornier chose to describe the entity as “an underwater abominable snowman”, linking it to the elusive resident of the Himalayan snows for no good reason.

There is the irresistible temptation to draw connections between these putative marine humanoids and fictional works like The Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954), The Monster of Piedras Blancas (1959) and even War Gods of the Deep (1965), but the fact that underwater creatures make for good pulp cinema does not detract from the authenticity of these real life accounts. A manlike creature emerged from a river near Saginaw, Michigan in 1937; batrachian creatures were seen in the mid-1950s in Loveland, Ohio, and in 1955 a woman was very nearly dragged under the surface of the Ohio River by a huge, clawed hand.

In an issue of the late Mark Chorvinsky’s Strange Magazine, Argentinean researcher Fabio Picasso mentioned an incident – also from the 1970s – involving two law students in the coastal city of Mar del Plata whose stroll along the beach was interrupted by the appearance of several lights on the water. “To their great surprise,” writes Picasso, “the lights were in fact five beings that seemed to be in their element, because they walked gracefully. The sea water reached their chests. The creatures were dressed in old-fashioned diving suits and their heads were covered by helmets with a mask and tube going to the back. The men did not see their hands, but the closed being seemed to carry a tube. They were not more than 16.4 yards / 1.5 meters from [the onlookers’ vantage point].” One might surmise that the students actually saw divers working on some sort of offshore project, except that their respiratory devices looked remarkably similar to those allegedly worn by the creatures involved in the Pascagoula, Mississippi abduction of Charles Hickson and Calvin Parker in 1973.

via Inexplicata-The Journal of Hispanic Ufology http://ift.tt/GCRz8J

Finally, a Real UFO Photo (Probably. No, Likely!)

Over the past few years the rise of clickthrough monetization has spawned a cottage industry of fake UFO sites on YouTube and made it much harder to find real UFO video. Thus we have become more discriminating than ever, being as careful as we can to avoid the fakes and mistakes. We also don't publish fuzzy nighttime video, largely because there is no way to tell anything about it.

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El humo de los coches y la quema de rastrojos ‘pintan’ de hollín la Alhambra

Investigadores de la Universidad de Granada han comprobado que las partículas emitidas por los vehículos y las quemas de biomasa en el entorno de la ciudad generan hollín sobre la Alhambra. Además, el cambio climático puede favorecer las condiciones de estancamiento de las masas de aire, lo que eleva las concentraciones de este contaminante y supone una gran amenaza para la conservación del monumento.
via Matemáticas, Física y Química http://ift.tt/18ZbcUb

Cómo desencadenar una reacción en cadena con un fotón

Investigadores de la Universidad Autónoma en Madrid han demostrado teóricamente que se puede generar una reacción fotoquímica en cadena a partir de un sólo fotón, algo que hasta ahora no era posible. Se trata de un importante avance en la denominada química polaritónica, donde se une la química y la electrodinámica cuántica para activar reacciones ‘prohibidas’ para la química convencional.
via Matemáticas, Física y Química http://ift.tt/18ZbcUb

10 nov. 2017

Quark Fusion could be Eight Times more Powerful than a Hydrogen Fusion Nuclear Reaction

A new study suggests that the fusion of subatomic quarks can result in the release of a huge amount of energy, in a process that could potentially rival that of nuclear fusion.

Quarks are the building blocks of all known matter, with different combinations of quarks making up sub-atomic particles such as electrons or protons. Everyone is familiar with the concept of nuclear fusion, particularly hydrogen fusion, where two hydrogen atoms are fused to form a single helium atom, and in the process converting part of the atom's leftover mass into energy.

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John Hogue on 2017 and Beyond

November 10, 2017
John read more

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Peru: Strange Entity Recorded in Huánuco

Source: ASTROUFO PERU and Planeta UFO
Date: 11.10.17

Peru: Strange Entity Recorded in Huánuco
By Alex Sender, Astroufo

On Sunday, October 29 (2017) around 4:30 in the afternoon, Mr. Edgard Valverde was at his home located in the Cerro Cotomono sector of the province of Tingo Maria (Huánuco-Perú) and decided to take a few photographs of an approaching storm on his cellphone, hoping to capture both the sky and the outline of a mountain. He never guessed that this chance photograph would record the presence of a strange entity flying over the sector.

According to Edgard Valverde, who says it is a "flying humanoid", the strange entity appears in two of the photographs he took. In the first image it appears as though the entity was about to take flight, slightly opening its wings. In the second image, it appears with its wings against its body, flying with "full freedom and autonomy."

The entity displays characteristics that separate it from a common avian. It has a well-defined head, torso and lower extremities with feet on each side, completely black. Two eyes appear to be visible in what could be construed as its face.

Even with the elements hitherto displayed, some might suggest it is no more than an unknown bird, but how can the following detail be explained? The second photo, which shows the entity in flight, betrays the presence of a humanoid silhouette very similar to the humanoid's own shape. This would appear to be a sort of projection, or perhaps an electromagnetic or space time distortion - an unquestionably strange phenomenon that accompanies this sighting.

NOTE: The full sequence of photographs can be seen at http://ift.tt/2meu2EI

[Translation (c) 2017 S. Corrales, IHU with thanks to Guillermo Giménez]

via Inexplicata-The Journal of Hispanic Ufology http://ift.tt/GCRz8J

Argentina: A Strange Apparition in Ramada Paso (Dogman?)

Source: CORRIENTES HOY (Argentina)and Andrés Salvador
Date: 11.10.2017

Argentina: A Strange Apparition in Ramada Paso (Dogman?)

Voluntary fire brigades reported to Ramada Paso to fight a wildfire that broke out in the pastures. They were treated to the sight of a strange apparition.

Reporting to an emergency call, the Volunteer fire brigade left it headquarters last Monday (11.06) at 17:30 and headed for Kilometer 1084 of Route 12 in the jurisdiction of Ramada Paso.

Entering the property to fight the blaze, two women firefighters saw what they described as an upright dog, much larger than the normal ones, standing in a eucalyptus grove around 19:00 hours. They found this disturbing, and it surprised the entire crew.

Having notified their crew chief of this event, they were ordered to retreat to the fire truck while a second crew headed out from [the town of] Itatí toward the site. Upon reaching the field, they swept it with their floodlights but didn't see a thing - not a trace of the unknown quantity that had startled the firefighters.

[Note: The newspaper wisely avoids any speculation, but could the uprignt dog had been the legendary "lobizón" - the Argentinean Dogman? Or perhaps the less frightening Aguara Guasu (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the maned wolf known to walk on its two hind legs? We look forward to follow-ups on the story. Our thanks to Andrés Salvador for bringing it to our attention! -- SC]

[Translation (c) 2017, Scott Corrales, IHU]
via Inexplicata-The Journal of Hispanic Ufology http://ift.tt/GCRz8J

9 nov. 2017

Transparent Solar Technologies Could Help Provide Nearly 100% of the US's Energy Demands

A study led by engineers at Michigan State University says that the use of transparent solar cells could potentially fulfill roughly 40 percent of the United States' energy demands, the equivalent of the potential for bulkier rooftop solar units, if applied to the abundant area of glass available in the US.

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What if UFOs are Always Around--and We Just Don't Notice?

Wednesday November 8, 2017
We often talk about using intention to manifest the Super Natural or "call in" UFOs. But what about just good old fashioned paying attention? What if UFOs are always around but we're too distracted with other things to notice them? This week, Jueno returns to explore this question, and many others, by way of examples in his life.

StreamGuys MP3 Stream URL: 

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8 nov. 2017

Enceladus' Subsurface Ocean has Existed for Billions of Years -- Long Enough for Life to Evolve

Ever since a massive subsurface ocean was discovered under the ice on Saturn's moon Enceladus, scientists have sought to uncover the reason behind the existence of liquid water on a world that should be frozen solid. However, a new study not only illustrates what may be the mechanism behind the presence of Enceladus' liquid water, but also that the process has been going on for billions of years -- more than long enough for life to gain a foothold there.

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7 nov. 2017

Climate Holdouts Nicaragua and Syria have Joined the Paris Accord, Leaving Trump Standing Alone

The Central American country of Nicaragua and war-torn Syria have joined the rest of the world's nations in agreeing to sign onto the Paris climate accord, as the world's nations meet in Bohn, Germany, for the world's largest climate summit. These two new inclusions to the accord leave the United States as the sole hold-out on the agreement, after President Donald J. Trump announced that the U.S. would withdraw from the accord last June.

President Daniel Ortega announced that Nicaragua would join the deal on September 20: "We have to be in solidarity with this large number of countries that are the first victims, who are already the victims and are the ones who will continue to suffer the impact of these disasters."

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Argentina: The Route 5 Teleportation Quandary

Source: Planeta UFO and Diario Popular
Date: 11.07.2017
Article by Sebastián Aranguren

Argentina: The Route 5 Teleportation Quandary

To drive along the segment of National Route 4 connecting Trenque Lauquen and Santa Rosa can lead to unforeseen situations, such as instantaneously going from kilometer 460 to the kilometer 580 marker, a circumstance that leads to surprise, incredulity and even fear -- all of this arising from an experience that UFO researchers have dubbed teleportation.

In truth, the episodes regarding this phenomenon, which affects conventional vehicles and trucks alike, still has not been given a definite explanation by ufologists, who acknowledge that this segment of the highway is an area in which teleportation occurs and has considerable history.

There was a free for all of case histories of these events between January and December 2012, after which teleportation reports subsided and ceased to be of interest to the media. However, no one can say they do not occur, or that those who experience them refuse to tell their stories.

Luis Burgos of Investigadores de Campo Unidos (ICOU) believes teleportation is a phenomenon anchored to Route 5, which has historically been the epicenter of prominent UFO cases, although there is a lack of probative elements that can serve to build a theory aimed at explaining the anomaly.

"With the exception of the area UFO resarchers call 'El Nido' (The Nest), located between Routes 11 and 36 of the Province of Buenos Aires, Route 5 and the communities located in the province of La Pampa are, without a doubt, prone to a variety of UFO experiences, of which teleportations are one of the most interesting episodes," said Burgos to Diario Popular.

Burgos, who also heads the Fundación Argentina de Ovnilogía (FAO), an organization that conducted a number of UFO research endeavors in the sphere of influence of the aforementioned roadway, believes "we are hitherto unable to put forth any hypothesis about what happens there" in spite of the abundance of material that has been collected.

The researcher noted that the mystery of teleportations worldwide, and obviously along the 550 kilometer length of the road connecting Luján in Buenos Aires with Santa Rosa lies with the phenomenon called "missing time" - the absence of awareness by drivers, passengers and truck drivers as they traverse the phenomenon.

"This missing time," explained Burgos, delving into the characteristics of the anomaly, “is a strange situation that leads the experiencer to be unaware of the way in which they have been teleported several kilometers in a matter of seconds".
The expert stressed that the UFO libraries posit two forms of teleportation: "One is atemporal teleportation, in which the protagonist takes minutes, even hours, in regaining awareness in a location far removed from the one he or she was in before. The other," he added, “is instantaneous teleportation, which is the kind that usually occurs on Route 5 when drivers are not even aware that they have experienced the phenomenon, suddenly becoming aware when they see a mile marker or road sign that tells them they have traversed an unexpected distance in a matter of seconds".

The research by FAO member Diego Sánchez uncovered the case of Carlos Colón, a car mechanic who was driving is '98 Chevy pickup truck near the 465 kilometer marker on Route 5 on 25 August 1999. He was suddenly gripped by an unbearable buzzing sound that he ascribed to an electrical problem affecting the vehicle's radio.

Endeavoring to find an answer to the problem and keep listening to music on the FM band, he pulled over to the shoulder. Suddenly, he was startled to see humanoid figures approaching him within a sort of screen. He sought protection from the unknown by getting out of the vehicle and sheltering beside it. Terrified, he saw how minutes later, the screen and the humanoids within it vanished as if by magic. However, the mechanic would find that he was viewing this standing at a barbed wire fence several meters distant from the pickup truck, nor could he ever figure out how he reached the location he was finally at.

He ran to the pickup truck and took off quickly, feeling a sensation of extreme exhaustion which he would later explain to the physicians who attended to him as "a full body ache." He also felt dizzy, as though there had been a spike in his blood pressure. He recovered from this discomfort once the stressful moment came to an end.

"While Colón's experience is one of the more extreme cases, being that it includes the presence of humanoids, his subsequent feelings are common to those felt by all those who have experienced teleportation on Route 5, including the overwhelming tiredness," Burgos noted.

He also stressed that those who were about to experience the phenomenon would see fog along the road, sometimes in the shape of a whirlwind, specifying that the locations most prone to this sort of event, and others of a more UFO-related bent, are the localities of Catriló, Lonquimay, La Gloria, Uriburo and Anguil in La Pampa and Trenque Lauquén in Buenos Aires.

Returning to the research of "missing time" experiences, the FAO and ICOU leader underscored that these anomalies usually occur in broad daylight, in open areas, and in greater numbers toward Catriló and Santa Rosa. As far as the research conducted by his group is concerned, this area is known as "segment 4" of the Route 5.

Moreover, and based on the materials kept in his files, Burgos noted that "numerous UFO cases have occurred within Route 5's sphere of influence," adding that the first teleportation event in the country occurred in late 1959, only scant kilometers from Bahia Blanca.

There is the story of a man who drove his car along National Route 3 and suddenly felt very tired after seeing a purple light that managed to pierce through a dense fogbank - fog that had no business being there that time of the year. The man awoke to find himself on the ground, in a place that was not the province of Buenos Aires and worse yet, with his car nowhere in sight. While it was hard to understand, the reason was quite simple: He was in Salta (1800 kilometers distant), as a friendly truck driver informed him, and his car, as the Buenos Aires police would attest, was on the shoulder of Route 3, and still running.

[Translation (c) 2017 S. Corrales, IHU with thanks to Guillermo Giménez, Planeta UFO]

via Inexplicata-The Journal of Hispanic Ufology http://ift.tt/GCRz8J

6 nov. 2017

A Large Chamber Hidden in the Great Pyramid has been Discovered

A new scanning technology using deep-penetrating cosmic rays has revealed a large, 100-foot-long chamber inside the Great Pyramid at Giza. This chamber, simply called "ScanPyramids Big Void" for the time being, sits high above the Grand Gallery, at roughly the height of the top of the King's Chamber, and appears to be the same dimensions as the Grand Gallery itself.

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3 nov. 2017

The Tom deLonge Project: Is there Really More to Come? Peter Levenda Knows!

November 3, 2017
Peter Levenda returns to Dreamland to talk about the book he co-authored with Tom DeLonge, Secret Machines,
and also to discuss the latest updates regarding the ToTheStars project. Will Tom release clear video and
convincing declassified documents about UFOs? If so, when?

Find out more this week on Dreamland!

But then go deeper into the amazing world of Sekret Machines: who are we and where did we come from?
Is there any evidence that we are a designed species living on a planet designed to support life?

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Buscando cámaras secretas en las pirámides de Egipto con rayos cósmicos

ACTUALIZACIÓN 3/11/2017: Este artículo fue originalmente publicado el 18 de noviembre de 2011. El tema ha entrado ahora de lleno en las noticias de actualidad por el posible descubrimiento de un espacio desconocido en el interior de la Gran Pirámide. Sea como fuere, porque hay polémica al respecto, conviene recordar de dónde viene todo el asunto, por lo que rescato el artículo tal y como lo publiqué originalmente…

Así, sin pensar mucho, el título de este post podría muy bien ser tomado por una tontería pseudocientífica como tantas otras que pueblan el mar de datos que es nuestro mundo actual. Pero no, aquí hay más miga que la sugerida por una frase al estilo de un tabloide sensacionalista, como intentaré enseñar a continuación.

El próximo mes de diciembre aparecerá publicada en mi sección Made in Spain, de la revista Historia de Iberia Vieja, una breve semblanza sobre cierta familia de científicos de origen asturiano entre los que se encontraba el genial Luis Walter Álvarez. Ya habrá tiempo entonces de escribir algo más sobre el personaje y su vida, pero hay cierto detalle de su biografía que apenas cité en el artículo que envié a la redacción y que me gustaría mencionar hoy, aunque sea sin profundizar mucho. (ACTUALIZACIÓN 3/11/2017: El artículo que se menciona se puede leer aquí.) Quien desee ir más allá, podrá hacerlo partiendo de los enlaces que aparecen al final de estas letras. Luis Walter Álvarez destacó en muchos sentidos, es más, diría que incluso dentro de la escasa fauna de los premiados con un Nobel de física sobresale por sus múltiples y extraños intereses, además de por su capacidad inventiva. No sólo fue uno de los más brillantes físicos experimentales del siglo XX, sino que dedicó mucho tiempo y esfuerzo a investigar campos que, al menos en principio, no le debían ser afines. Es más, aunque pueda pensarse que ese tipo de “aficiones” podían hacer de él alguien disperso, hay que recordar que era un tipo divertido, alegre y que sentía pasión por abordar todo tipo de retos. La experimentación era su vida, su pasión y su pasatiempo, así que aunque, en efecto, dispersó sus intereses en multitud de campos, logró algo que no consiguen muchas personas: disfrutaba como un niño con su trabajo diario. El premio Nobel de física del año 1968 le fue concedido por su decisiva contribución a la física de partículas. Claro está, el haber alcanzado la cima de su especialidad le permitió luego aventurarse en investigaciones “extrañas” sin que le miraran como a un bicho raro. Es más, lo que en boca de otros hubiera sonado demasiado extraño, aunque fuera plausible, se convertía en idea atractiva cuando Álvarez trabajaba sobre ello y, lo que es más sorprendente… ¡lograba financiación para sus “locuras”!

De entre todas sus investigaciones “de frontera”, son tres las que hoy día se recuerdan especialmente. Por una parte, Álvarez investigó el asesinato de Kennedy, cuando se sintió intrigado por las imágenes de la famosa cinta del magnicidio grabadas por Abraham Zapruder. Entre muchas otras cosas, Álvarez era experto en óptica y análisis de imagen, por lo que se puso manos a la obra y diseccionó cada fotograma con suma precisión. Las conclusiones a las que llegó apoyaban la teoría general del FBI, pero también dejaron ver ciertos errores en los análisis de imagen de la agencia federal, lo que llevó a la redacción de un complejo informe que pasó a ser materia de estudio entre los expertos.

Luis Walter Álvarez también logró ser reconocido, junto con su hijo geólogo, por su célebre teoría que vincula la extinción de los dinosaurios a las consecuencias del impacto en la Tierra de un cuerpo extraterrestre. El descubrimiento de la anomalía de iridio ofreció apoyo a esta teoría. He mencionado el asunto muchas veces en TecOb, y hasta le dediqué un capítulo de mi primer libro, así que no comentaré nada más en este post.

Llega el momento de mencionar la tercera de las “extrañas obsesiones” de Luis Walter Álvarez, a saber, explorar las pirámides de Egipto para descubrir cámaras desconocidas en su interior por medio del uso de cierta tecnología que parecía de ciencia ficción. Vuelvo a repetir la idea inicial: si esto lo hubiera planteado cualquier otro, posiblemente no hubiera llegado muy lejos. Bien, pues Álvarez no sólo lo planteó, sino que lo llevó a cabo y hasta recibió apoyos para materializar la aventura.

El propio físico narraba de esta forma cómo nació su interés por curiosear en el interior de las pirámides1:

Cuando vi por primera vez las pirámides en el verano de 1962, de camino a una conferencia de física de altas energías en Ginebra, traté de imaginar cómo fueron construidas. Sin embargo, no fue hasta que me encontré en la Antártida durante diez días a principios de 1964, cuando encontré tiempo para pensar más profundamente acerca de las pirámides. Entonces me entusiasmé tanto que, cuando volví a Berkeley, tomé una gran pila de libros de la biblioteca y me centré en ellos durante semanas…

Álvarez logró reunir a un equipo internacional de físicos y arqueólogos, mayoritariamente estadounidenses y egipcios, para llevar a cabo el singular experimento de “radiografiar” una pirámide. El lugar elegido fue una cámara bien conocida, situada en el interior de la pirámide de Kefrén. Aunque la idea podía llevarse a cabo, no era algo precisamente barato y, además, el experimento tuvo que ser interrumpido en 1967 por la Guerra de los Seis Días. Cuando ya se había “escaneado” casi el veinte por ciento de la pirámide, sin encontrarse nuevas cámaras, se presentó un informe ante la American Physical Society. ¿Acaso hubieran encontrado algo interesante de haber continuado con el experimento? Mientras nadie lo vuelva a intentar, la pregunta queda sin respuesta. Ahora bien, personalmente me resulta más atractiva la idea en sí que la supuesta existencia de cámaras “secretas” en el interior de las pirámides.

Y esto es así porque la idea tiene mucha miga. Hay diversas formas de enfrentar el problema (ver fig.1). Por ejemplo, si colocamos una potente fuente de rayos X en la cámara que se encuentra en el interior de la pirámide, y cubrimos las caras del monumento con placas fotográficas, podríamos detectar las cámaras ocultas. Aquellas placas que mostraran una exposición diferente a los rayos X, servirían para localizar la presencia de espacios vacíos en el interior de la mole de piedra. La idea es buena, ¿no es así? Pues no, ni de lejos. La fuente de rayos X tendría que ser realmente potente, inmensa y, por ello, muy peligrosa, si se quisiera que los rayos llegaran al exterior, cosa realmente improbable incluso así. ¿Alguien imagina pirámides “radiactivas”? Por otra parte, ¿cuánto costaría “vestir” a la pirámide de Kefrén con placas fotográficas? Hoy día se podría utilizar otro tipo de sensor, pero tampoco sería económico.

Figura 1. Esquema ideal del experimento con una fuente de rayos X.

Ahora bien, ya contamos con una potente fuente de radiación, siempre está ahí aunque no nos percatemos de ello. Se trata de los rayos cósmicos que, curiosamente, solucionan los dos problemas del experimento. Por una parte, nos ahorran introducir una fuente de radiación en el interior de la pirámide. ¡Ya llueve radiación sobre ella constantemente! Así que, gracias a ello, ahorraremos también en placas fotográficas, sólo habrá que “vestir” el interior de la cámara con detectores de rayos cósmicos y punto final. Decirlo es sencillo, llevarlo a la práctica no lo es tanto, porque el detector ya no será una placa fotográfica, sino algo mucho más sofisticado.

Los rayos cósmicos llueven desde todas partes del universo. Muchos de ellos interaccionan con átomos de la alta atmósfera generándose una cascada de partículas secundarias. De entre ese nuevo zoológico de partículas, nos interesan especialmente los muones, pues son capaces de llegar a tierra, es más, pueden atravesar la gruesa piel de piedra que rodea la cámara de la pirámide. Así pues, será un detector de muones lo que se colocará en esa cámara.

Figura 2. Si en la pirámide de Kefrén existiera una cámara desconocida que ocupara un espacio similar al que ocupa la cámara del Rey en la pirámide de Keops, los datos procedentes del detector de muones bien podrían haber presentado el aspecto de este grupo de valores desviados positivamente, al contar los muones con menos roca que atravesar hasta llegar al detector.

En teoría, una cámara de chispas de la época sería ideal para detectar los muones que llueven sobre la estancia y, allá donde se detecte una variación mensurable sobre el fondo “constante” de la lluvia, será donde se encuentre un espacio secreto. El experimento, pese a lo complejo del majeno de los datos estadísticos que generaba, fue todo un éxito y, aunque en el tiempo en que pudo utilizarse no se descubrió ningún tesoro desconocido, ha quedado para la historia de la ciencia y la tecnología como uno de los experimentos más ingeniosos jamás ideados2.

1 Véase el capítulo 16, titulado Using Cosmic Rays in the Search for Hidden Chambers in the Pyramids, de la obra Discovering Alvarez: selected works of Luis W. Alvarez, with commentary by his students and colleagues.
2 Para más información (y como fuente de los gráficos empleados en este post), véase: Scientist as detective: Luis Alvarez and the Pyramid Burial Chambers, the JFK Assassination, and the end of the Dinosaurs Charles G. Wohl. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720.

Imagen de cabecera: Luis Walter Álvarez. Fuente: “Luis Alvarez – Biography”. Nobelprize.org. 18 Nov 2011.

Buscando cámaras secretas en las pirámides de Egipto con rayos cósmicos apareció originalmente en Tecnología Obsoleta, 3 noviembre 2017.

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2 nov. 2017

EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt Bars Top Scientists from Advisory Committee Posts, Appoints Industry-Friendly Advisors

Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Scott Pruitt has signed a new directive that prevents scientists that are receiving grants from the EPA from serving on the agency's advisory committees. Pruitt says that this unprecedented move is to remove what he perceives to be a potential bias from the committees, stating that the members of three key EPA boards -- the Science Advisory Board, Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, and Board of Scientific Counselors -- have received an estimated $77 million in agency funding. The move was quickly criticized by scientists and environmentalists as one that would bar the country's most qualified scientists from these committees, and at the same time leave the door open for Pruitt to appoint industry-friendly members to advise the EPA.

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Logran moldear nanopartículas de oro para que se comporten como clones

Investigadores de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CIC biomaGUNE y la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid han demostrado que un sistema de láseres especiales puede hacer que millones de nanopartículas de oro actúen como si fuera una sola. El avance se puede aplicar en biomedicina y fotónica, desde el tratamiento de tumores hasta la producción de energía, gracias a la capacidad de estas partículas para absorber o reflejar una luz determinada en función de su geometría.
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This Guest Spoke about Contact on This Show--and They Returned!

Thursday November 2, 2017
If it is true that paying attention to Super Natural phenomena revs it up in one's life, then does the quality of that attention count? Does contact happen from out of the depths of attention?
StreamGuys MP3 Stream URL: 

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Los rayos cósmicos revelan una cámara secreta en la pirámide de Keops

Sobre la mayor de las galerías de la gran pirámide de Guiza se esconde una misteriosa cavidad de al menos 30 metros de largo. Un equipo internacional de físicos de partículas acaba de descubrir esta estructura oculta gracias a los muones, partículas originadas por los rayos cósmicos con las que se puede distinguir la piedra del vacío.
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1 nov. 2017

Newly Discovered Asteroid Appears to be Our First Interstellar Visitor--Of the Natural Kind...

Astronomers may have discovered an asteroid that isn't part of our Solar system, but is instead a lone traveler, making its long journey through the cosmos.

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31 oct. 2017

The Director of the CIA was asked if Lee Harvey Oswald was a CIA Agent -- but his Answer is Missing!

"Is there any information involved with the assassination of President Kennedy which in any way shows that Lee Harvey Oswald was in some way a CIA agent or agent..."

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El asteroide de Halloween prepara su regreso en 2018

Queda un año para que vuelva a aproximarse a la Tierra el asteroide 2015 TB145, como ya lo hizo en 2015 alrededor de la noche de Halloween, una ocasión que no desaprovecharon los astrónomos para estudiar sus características. Este oscuro objeto tiene un tamaño de entre 625 y 700 metros, su periodo de rotación ronda las tres horas y, bajo determinadas condiciones de iluminación, su aspecto recuerda al de una calavera humana.
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30 oct. 2017

A Government Committee Warns that North Korea could Wipe Out 90 Percent of the Population of the US -- with a Single Bomb

There has been a great deal of concern over North Korea's nuclear weapons program as of late, with PDRK dictator Kim Jong-Un threatening, on numerous occasions, to launch a nuclear attack against the United States. These concerns have focused primarily on the possibility of a direct nuclear strike, but experts speaking at a House of Representatives hearing held on October 12 pointed out that, while a limited nuclear exchange with direct strikes would cause terrible destruction, North Korea could conceivably wipe out 90 percent of the population of U.S. within a year with the deployment of a single device: the detonation of a high-altitude EMP bomb.

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Hidrógeno más limpio y barato gracias a un nuevo catalizador

Científicos del Institut Català d' Investigació Química y la Universidad Rovira i Virgili han desarrollado un nuevo catalizador con cobalto y wolframio para ‘romper’ moléculas de agua con muy poco voltaje y sin usar metales caros como el iridio. El objetivo es obtener por electrolisis uno de los combustibles del futuro: el hidrógeno, de una forma económica y sostenible.
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La saga de los primeros submarinos españoles

En la edición de octubre de 2017 de la revista Historia de Iberia Vieja, publiqué un artículo repasando brevemente la historia de algunos de los primeros submarinos españoles. Esta es la versión para TecOb de ese artículo.

Junto con el deseo de volar como un pájaro, posiblemente sea el anhelo de surcar las profundidades oceánicas como peces uno de los más antiguos sueños humanos. La tecnología ha auxiliado a los humanos a la hora de conseguir estos logros y, cómo no, los submarinos son hoy día una realidad que supera las más imaginativas propuestas de los pioneros de la navegación bajo las aguas. En la historia de España se encuentran los casos de muchos de esos soñadores que lucharon para conseguir un submarino práctico. Populares son las historias de Narciso Monturiol o de Isaac Peral, pero no fueron los únicos, ni mucho menos. He aquí un breve repaso sobre aquellos olvidados precursores que pretendieron conquistar el mundo submarino.

Un deseo inmemorial

Fue a finales del siglo XVIII cuando se vieron las primeras naves submarinas de las que se tenga conocimiento, muy primitivas pero osadas. Ahí tenemos, por ejemplo, las aventuras del Tortuga, sumergible ideado por el norteamericano David Bushnell hacia 1776 que participó en el conflicto de independencia de los Estados Unidos. No dejaba de ser un simple cascarón de madera forrado de cobre y movido a pedales que, por su parecido con una tortuga, tomó el nombre por el que es recordado. Cabe mencionar aquí que se debe diferenciar entre los vehículos de “superficie” que pueden navegar bajo las aguas durante limitados periodos de tiempo, léase sumergibles, de los verdaderos submarinos, que son las naves pensadas para pasar largos tiempos sumergidos con gran desempeño en cuando a velocidad y autonomía.

El también norteamericano Robert Fulton, recordado por crear el primer barco a vapor comercial, ofreció no mucho después, en los albores del nuevo siglo, cierta nave sumergible a la que llamó Nautilus nada más y nada menos que a Napoleón. A pesar de su limitada capacidad para sumergirse, tuvo bastante éxito en sus pruebas iniciales, pero no encontró el apoyo que buscaba en Francia. No fue, ni mucho menos, la primera experiencia submarina que se veía en Europa. Entre 1620 y 1624 el polifacético inventor holandés Cornelius Drebbel ya había llamado la atención con las pruebas en Inglaterra de varios sumergibles tripulados de madera recubiertos de cuero.

Como sucede en toda tecnología al indagar en su historia, cabe sorprenderse al comprobar que en diversos lugares se estaban desarrollando ideas similares. Las condiciones de la técnica hacen que, en cada época, las mentes inquietas intenten ir más allá por caminos muchas veces coincidentes. Por eso, no extrañará que se repitan historias de osados inventores que probaron sus ideas acerca de máquinas submarinas prácticamente en cada rincón de Europa o Norteamérica. Ahora bien, llaman la atención entre todo ello, algunas experiencias muy tempranas que tuvieron a España como escenario. Existe cierta referencia, mencionada en diversas fuentes, a una experiencia llevada a cabo por dos curiosos personajes de origen griego en Toledo, en aguas del Tajo, en 1538. Al parecer, se probó entonces una pequeña nave sumergible capaz de permanecer bajo las aguas un considerable periodo de tiempo y que, además, podía navegar, no sólo permanecer sumergido. El evento llamó mucho la atención en su tiempo, como también lo hizo otra experiencia posterior. El protagonista, en este caso, fue el ingeniero navarro Jerónimo de Ayanz quien, en 1603, ideó una “barca submarina”, tal y como aparece en la documentación presente en el Archivo General de Indias. Un año antes, el 6 de agosto de 1602, ya había realizado una prueba de inmersión de un buzo en aguas del Pisuerga, en Valladolid, ante el asombro del público presente.

De principios del siglo XIX nos llegan ecos de algunos ignotos inventores españoles que lo volvieron a intentar. Gracias a la gran obra de investigación de Diego Quevedo Carmona, Lino J. Pazos Pérez y otros autores que vio la luz en 2013 en un libro titulado “Los desconocidos precursores españoles de la navegación submarina”, se recupera el lejano recuerdo del escribano cordobés Rafael Covó. Este singular personaje, a modo de un Julio Verne adelantado a su época, ideó cierta nave submarina tripulada, movida a remos, que estaba dotada de torreta y un cañón a la que llamó Nuro. Aquella nave nunca fue construida, cosa que sí logró otro olvidado ingenio, el creado por un desconocido llamado Cervó, posiblemente de origen francés. Por desgracia, en este caso la prueba terminó con la vida del inventor. Sucedió en 1831 cuando una esfera de metal, con portezuela acristalada, pensada para observar el fondo marino, se sumergió en el Puerto de Barcelona, aplastando la presión del agua su interior.

Nuestros grandes precursores: García, Monturiol y Peral

Mediado el siglo XIX los alemanes, franceses o estadounidenses estaban dando forma a sus primeras propuestas de submarino, algunas de ellas tan extravagantes como el “cigarro” del norteamericano Winans, una nave ahusada de metal dotada de un gigantesco propulsor central giratorio que le daba un aspecto realmente extraño, aunque poco práctico en la realidad.

Por ese tiempo, en España, Cosme García Sáez, nacido en 1818 en Logroño, soñaba también con crear un submarino práctico. Cosme era un ingeniero pertinaz que tuvo muy mala suerte y poco apoyo para llevar a cabo sus empeños, algo por desgracia bastante común en nuestra historia. De su mente nacieron máquinas selladoras para las oficinas de correos, mejoras en el arte de la imprenta, máquinas para la Casa de la Moneda, cierto fusil mejorado de gran desempeño. Ahora bien, la invención más sonada de García fue su nave submarina. Tras diversos proyectos y patentes, fue hacia 1860 cuando llevó a cabo las pruebas de su navío, construido en Barcelona, en el puerto de Alicante. En el interior del submarino de Cosme podían viajar dos personas. El propio inventor fue quien, junto a uno de sus hijos, realizó las pruebas, que fueron todo un éxito. A pesar del interés que encontró en Madrid y en París, nadie quiso financiar la mejora de su submarino, que terminó abandonado.

El submarino de Cosme García.

Esta falta de apoyo oficial a nuestros inventores de naves submarinas fue algo común. Ahí puede contemplarse, además de cierta ceguera de algunos dirigentes, el miedo a entrar en conflicto, o incluso las presiones, que llegaban desde Inglaterra, donde se consideraba que el desarrollo de este tipo de naves ponía en riesgo la supremacía de su flota en los mares de todo el mundo. Tampoco encontró mucho apoyo Narciso Monturiol, el polifacético ingeniero e inventor catalán, nacido en 1819, que presentó un proyecto de nave submarina en fecha tan temprana como 1858. Su primer modelo de Ictíneo, o barco-pez, tal y como él llamaba a sus submarinos, fue probado de forma privada en el Puerto de Barcelona en 1859 y de forma oficial en Alicante, en 1861. El éxito de aquellas experiencias y el apoyo inicial del gobierno parecía que llevaría el empeño de Monturiol a buen puerto. Con una recaudación de capital entre entusiastas de la idea, se construyó el Ictíneo II, una nave muy mejorada que se probó en Barcelona en 1864. Nos quedan para el recuerdo los detallados escritos del inventor, pues la historia terminó como tantas veces: con mucho interés por parte del público y las autoridades, pero sin apoyo económico para continuar desarrollando estas naves.

El Ictíneo de Monturiol.

Isaac Peral

Y, así, tras dos fallidos, pero geniales intentos, se llega a la triste historia de Peral, precursor indudable de los modernos submarinos. Isaac Peral y Caballero, murciano nacido en 1851, fue un militar de raza, además de científico estimable. Pero, a pesar de sus muchos logros, una obsesión no abandonaba su cabeza: la solución al problema de la navegación submarina. Y, ciertamente, con mucho empeño, estudio y pruebas de todo tipo, logró su objetivo. Una lástima que no lograra apoyo, lo que terminó minando su ánimo y su salud. La novedad del Peral, era que fue el primer submarino práctico de la historia propulsado por un método seguido posteriormente en todo el mundo: la electricidad. Autorizada su construcción hacia 1886, se materializó en el gaditano Arsenal de la Carraca, en San Fernando. La nave, botada en 1888, era revolucionaria: contaba con capacidades que le daban un desempeño en cuanto a velocidad y autonomía realmente impresionantes. Podía lanzar torpedos tanto navegando en superficie como en inmersión. Las pruebas fueron exitosas, aunque no de forma completa, pues la Armada estableció unas condiciones muy estrictas que el submarino debía cumplir para continuar con su apoyo al proyecto. A pesar de los elogios y las medallas, la lucha de Peral no tuvo éxito y la nave quedó almacenada y olvidada. Las presiones del exterior para que España no pudiera hacerse con una flota de naves tan avanzadas fueron determinantes en este caso.

Los pioneros olvidados

Los mencionados casos de García, Monturiol y Peral son los más conocidos de nuestra “prehistoria” submarina, pero ni mucho menos fueron los únicos precursores reseñables. Otro insigne militar, Isidoro Cabanyes, soñó también con una nave submarina avanzada. Su ingenio le ha llevado a ser recordado como pionero de las energías renovables, pues a principios del siglo XX ideó y llevó a la práctica algo que sólo fue recuperado por la técnica de finales de ese siglo: su torre eólico-solar, una tecnología que hacía uso del calentamiento del aire por parte de los rayos solares para crear energía útil. Además de sus torres solares, Cabanyes patentó otros muchos inventos, desde máquinas eléctricas a sistemas de alumbrado por gas. Fue en 1885 cuando, junto a Miguel Bonet, presentó un proyecto muy avanzado de submarino eléctrico que rivalizaba con el de Peral. A pesar de contar con el visto bueno de diversas autoridades y academias, nunca encontró apoyo suficiente como para llevar al mundo real su sueño submarino.

El submarino de Cabanyes.

El proyecto de Peral ocupaba por entonces toda la atención de los medios nacionales y de la administración, en lo que a submarinos se refiere, cosa que a buen seguro terminó por perjudicar a Cabanyes. Curiosamente, una iniciativa privada muy oscura y apasionante tuvo lugar en ese mismo tiempo, hacia 1885. En Asturias se probó un prototipo de submarino, en el río Caudal, construido en una fábrica de Mieres. Fue ideado por el ingeniero gijonés Buenaventura Junquera Domínguez y, al parecer, tuvo éxito en sus pruebas. Animado por un motor a gasolina, algo inaudito para la época, no encontró tampoco apoyo alguno para continuar con su desarrollo.

Finalizando el siglo XIX hubo muchos otros intentos por construir un submarino español, como los proyectos del incansable inventor e ingeniero Eduardo Mier y Miura, que tampoco llegaron muy lejos. Curioso fue también el empeño de Raimundo Lorenzo de Equevilley, español de origen francés, ingeniero naval de vida rocambolesca que, entre tramas de espías y muchas aventuras, idea diversos prototipos de submarinos que fueron desarrollados en Alemania. Y, todo esto, sin olvidarnos mencionar a otros pioneros españoles que, sin pensar en crear grandes submarinos, aportaron interesantes ideas a este campo de la técnica. Arturo Génova Torruella patentó su “ascensor submarino” en los años treinta del siglo pasado para servir como medio de escape y salvamento de submarinos en caso de accidente. Las pruebas de esta especie de cápsula de escape unipersonal fueron todo un éxito, pero no se continuó con su desarrollo mucho tiempo. Al poco, hacia 1932, apareció en la prensa nacional el empeño de un palentino que trabajaba en un taller ferroviario de Madrid. Se trataba de Adrián Álvarez Ruiz, apasionado lector de Julio Verne que logró probar en el lago de la Casa de Campo madrileña un dispositivo pensado para mantener la atmósfera respirable en el interior de submarinos siniestrados. Aunque tuvo cierto eco entre técnicos de la Royal Navy, tampoco en este caso el novísimo sistema llegó muy lejos. Algo similar intentó Francisco Espinosa en la Barcelona de 1934, probando un generador de oxígeno en un minisubmarino. La prueba fue bastante accidentada y poco más se supo del ingenio. Y, hablando de submarinos de bolsillo, en los años cincuenta se vio en las aguas cantábricas la pequeña nave ideada por el buzo Agustín Bermúdez, construida en Bilbao.

Ahora bien, ningún recuerdo a los pioneros españoles de los submarinos puede estar mínimamente completa sin al menos contener una mención al gran Antonio Sanjurjo Badía. Coruñés, nacido en 1837, relojero y mecánico dotado de una habilidad extraordinaria, logró hacer fortuna con su ingenio a través de la creación de varios talleres y empresas. Con su propio capital, construyó en 1898 una nave submarina pensada para defender Vigo de un hipotético ataque de los Estados Unidos. Las pruebas de la nave fueron satisfactorias, pero no continuó con el desarrollo de su invento pues, el mismo día en que fue probado, se firmaba el tratado de paz que terminaba con la Guerra Hispano-estadounidense.

Sobre este tema en TecOb he publicado los siguientes artículos:

La saga de los primeros submarinos españoles apareció originalmente en Tecnología Obsoleta, 30 octubre 2017.

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